References for 100 Ways America is Screwing Up the World

Chapters 20-35

20  Augusto Pinochet and Chile  

A useful Web resource on Chile and other topics is the World History Archives.  The National Security Archive has numerous documents on this grisly story, including key pieces of the Letelier story and links to several other authoritative sources.  A much briefer account is available at the Washington Post

Books: Fear in Chile: Lives Under Pinochet by Patricia Politzer (The New Press, 2001); A Nation of Enemies: Chile Under Pinochet, by Pamela Constable and Arturo Valenzuela (Norton, 1993); The Pinochet Affair : State Terrorism and Global Justice by Roger Burbach (Zed, 2004); and Ariel Dorfman’s Exorcising Terror: The Incredible Unending Trial of Augusto Pinochet (Open Media, 2002), are four places to start.

21  The Argentine Generals and the “Dirty War”

The National Security Archive is again the place for dozens of original documents.  There is an interesting discussion from a few years ago led by Elizabeth Farnsworth on the News Hour site. A brief excerpt from the book, State Terrorism and the United States by Frederic Gareau is worth a look.  And here is a nice account of the Mothers of the Disappeared

Books: Mixed Signals: U.S. Human Rights Policy and Latin America by the brilliant Kathryn Sikkink (Cornell/Century Foundation Book, 2004) is an excellent and incisive treatment.  Jacobo Timerman’s classic, Prisoner without a Name, Cell without a Number
(Wisconsin, 2002), is from a victim, as is Alicia Partnoy’s The Little School: Tales of Disappearance & Survival in Argentina (1997). 

22  Mubarak and Egypt 

Compared with the murderers and thieves elsewhere in this section, and the blood-on-their-hands Americans like Kirkpatrick and Kissinger, this is practically a tale of schoolboy antics.  Still important, however.  See Human Rights Watch for several reports.  See these human rights activists’ Web site for an indigenous accountMiddle East Report is always reliable.  Charles Tripp’s Egypt Under Mubarak (Routledge, 1990) is somewhat dated but from a first-rate British scholar.  Egypt During the Sadat Years
by Kirk Beattie (Palgrave 2000) is also solid.

23  Pol Pot and the Cambodian Genocide

Ed Herman’s brief account is a place to begin, a companion to Noam Chomsky’s.  Frontline has a good, archived piece. Yale has a Cambodia genocide project database, as does the National Security Archive.  The “legacy of violence” is also worth reading.

Books:  Michael Haas, Cambodia, Pol Pot, and the United States: The Faustian Pact (Praeger, 1991); Ben Kiernan, The Pol Pot Regime: Race, Power, and Genocide in Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge, 1975-79 (Yale, 1998); William Shawcross’s monumental, Sideshow: Kissinger, Nixon, and the Destruction of Cambodia has been revised and reissued (Cooper, 2002). The quotye in my chapter is from this book (page 396).  When the War Was over: Cambodia and the Khmer Rouge Revolution by Elizabeth Becker (Public Affairs, 1998) is excellent.

24  Suharto and Indonesia

The fine scholar Peter Dale Scott provides this brief but informative account.  The National Security Archive has several useful documentsForeign Policy in Focus has pieces on Indonesia.  Another account with links is from Dissent Voice.

Books: Benedict Anderson, editor, Violence and the State in Suharto's Indonesia
(Cornell, 2001); The End of Sukarno: A Coup That Misfired, a Purge That Ran Wild
by John Hughes (2003), are two good accounts.

25  Mohammed Zia Ul-Haq and the Militarization of Pakistan

A handy little site called Pakistan History is a worthwhile visit.  The country studies provided by the Library of Congress is always a place to look.  On Zia and his untimely death, see Edward Jay Epstein’s article in Vanity Fair.  On one legacy, that of nuclear weapons developed by Pakistan, see  On the second legacy, that of Islamic militancy—this is a genuine two-fer—check out two “local” Web sites, Unholy Wars and Thinking East, and the books below. 

BooksJessica Stern, Pakistan's Drift Into Extremism: Allah, The Army, And America's War On Terror (M.E. Sharpe, 2004); Husain Haqqani, Pakistan: Between Mosque And Military (Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2005); Owen Bennett Jones, Pakistan: Eye of the Storm (Yale, 2003); and Stephen P. Cohen, The Idea of Pakistan (Brookings, 2004).

26  Mobuto Sese Seko, America’s Congolese Cold Warrior

On Congo generally and the awful consequences of Mobutu’s rule, see the many reports of Human Rights Watch. A somewhat dated but useful piece is at Foreign Policy in Focus.  A solid review of the civil war plaguing the country since the mid 1990s can be found at  And a broader historical treatment from Global Issues.  The quotation from Reagan is found at the US Department of State Bulletin.

Books: A must-read history is Adam Hochschild’s award-winning King Leopold’s Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror, and Heroism in Colonial Africa See also Robert Edgerton, The Troubled Heart of Africa: A History of the Congo (St. Martin’s, 2002), and 
In the Footsteps of Mr. Kurtz: Living on the Brink of Disaster in Mobutu's Congo, by Michela Wrong (HarperCollins, 2001); more narrowly, but usefully, see William D. Hartung and Bridget Moix, Deadly Legacy: U.S. Arms to Africa and the Congo War, Arms Trade Resource Center, World Policy Institute, January 2000.

27  Saddam Hussein, the Durable American Friend.

Where to begin?  So much to say on how we helped Saddam.  I covered some of this ground in Spoils of War.  See also the Guardian; the National Security Archive; a MSNBC piece on Global Policy.  There are many other sources.  Saddam’s connection to the CIA, a UPI story, is found here

Books:  Said K. Aburish, Saddam Hussein (Bloomsbury, 2001); Andrew and Patrick Cockburn, Out of the Ashes: The Resurrection of Saddam Hussein (HarperPerennial, 2000); and Saddam Hussein: A Political Biography by Efraim Karsh and Inari Rautsi (Grove Press, 2003).

28  SUVs

I wonder if a study has ever been done showing that those who buy SUVs are likely to be anti-social in other ways—more prone to violence, for example, or voting Republican.  My strong hunch is that the results would be affirmative on that.   

The dangerousness of SUVs is not difficult to establish.  Voluntary standards have been proposed, and haphazardly implemented, to make SUVs less hazardous to those in normal sized cars.  But of course these standards are not mandatory and can be abandoned, while millions of used SUVs will stay on the roads for years. 

The industry analyst quoted re money was George Peterson. The story, from CBS, also quotes psychologists noting how owning SUVs satisfies something in the reptilian brain.  Only 5% of the behemoths ever go off road. Sales figures for Europe are from Reuters and found here; the bit about buying mud, from Wired, is here; and the the gush to English women is here

There is increasingly serious work being done on these phenomena. Some are in chapters relating to global climate change and consumerism.  See also Stephanie Mencimer’s  piece in The Washington Monthly surveying Keith Bradsher's new book, High and Mighty. Bradsher reports, SUV buyers tend to be "insecure and vain. They are frequently nervous about their marriages and uncomfortable about parenthood. They often lack confidence in their driving skills. Above all, they are apt to be self-centered and self-absorbed, with little interest in their neighbors and communities. They are more restless, more sybaritic, and less social than most Americans are. They tend to like fine restaurants a lot more than off-road driving, seldom go to church and have limited interest in doing volunteer work to help others."  What a surprise.

29  The “War on Terrorism”

This chapter is an argument that does not require much documentation.  On the numbers of prosecutions, actually more than 400 now and no more related to al Qaeda than before, see two excellent articles in the Washington Post published in 2005.  Professor David Cole of Georgetown University Law Center has been particularly insightful about the futility and political motivations of the domestic war on terror. See his column in The Nation, or his book, Enemy Aliens.  Nancy Chang and Richard Leone, among others, have also written important books about the civil liberties issue.  A volume I edited is worth a look: The Maze of Fear: Security and Migration After 9/11 (The New Press, 2004), especially the intro (mine!) and the chapter by Louise Cainkar

On the creeping corruption among homeland security officials, see the New York Times two-part series beginning June 18, 2006. 

Books:  It’s a growing literature, to be sure.  On the “war” strategy and implementation itself, see The Next Attack: The Failure of the War on Terror and a Strategy for Getting It Right, by Daniel Benjamin and Steven Simon (Henry Holt, 2005); and Stephen Flynn, America the Vulnerable (HarperCollins, 2004).  Other worthwhile books include Seymour Hersh’s Chain of Command: The Road from 9/11 to Abu Ghraib (HarperCollins, 2004) and his many articles in The New Yorker; Terrorism and War by Howard Zinn (Open Media, 2002), and books by Noam Chomsky

Al Qaeda and Iraq needs no introduction, but see Paul Rogers in opendemocracy.  An interesting review essay is found in the Army War College’s indispensable Parameters.  Connecting the dots, see “Violence as a tool of order and change,” and “Are we in a war? Do we have an enemy?”  On the connection to the War on Drugs, see the Center for International Policy’s Report

This is just the tip of a very big iceberg, as the “war” continues endlessly and the words to describe and analyze it follow.  Be careful what you read.


30-35  How to Really Screw Things Up: Six Splendid Little Wars

Guatemala, 1954.  This history is well known and written about.  The standard text here is the book by Stephen Schlesinger and Stephen Kinzer, Bitter Fruit: The Untold Story of the American Coup in Guatemala (new edition, Harvard University Press, 1999).  See also Daniel Wilkerson’s Silence On The Mountain: Stories Of Terror, Betrayal, And Forgetting In Guatemala (Duke, 2004); and Victor Perera’s Unfinished Conquest: The Guatemalan Tragedy (Univ. of California, 1995). There are several others.

Documents and analyses can be found at the National Security Archive; the electronic reading room of the CIA;  and the Report on the Americas, produced by the North American Congress on Latin America, which is an excellent resource; there is a charge for accessing most of their archived articles.  Bringing us up to the present day is a solid piece in Current History.  A nicely informative piece is found in The History Teacher

For a good overview of U.S. policy in Latin America generally, see Harvard Professor Jorge Dominguez’s 1999 paper.  Two books mentioned earlier that provide the broader sweep of the region are Our Own Backyard: The United States in Central America, 1977-1992, by William M. Leogrande (North Carolina, 1998), and Beneath the United States: A History of U.S. Policy toward Latin America, (Harvard, 1998) by Lars Schoultz

 Dominican Republic, 1965.  DR has fewer treatments than Guatemala, but was just as emblematic of U.S. mistreatment of the region.  Try this excellent piece in the New York Review of Books.  See “Democracy Versus Democracy,” Steven Volk, in NACLA; a long narrative by two leading scholars of conflict, Fearon and Laitin; and see, for a useful comparison of other interventions, H. W. Brands, Jr.’s Decisions on American Armed Intervention: Lebanon, Dominican Republic, and Grenada,” Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 102, No. 4 (Winter, 1987-1988). And an interesting photo and map archive.

Books:  The Dictator Next Door: The Good Neighbor Policy and the Trujillo Regime in the Dominican Republic, 1930-1945, by Eric Roorda and published by Duke in 1998, gives the longer historical look so essential to these topics and yet so typically missing from public discourse.  The effect of Trujillo’s brutality on Haiti is especially instructive.  A good journalistic treatment that considers the entire island is Why the Cocks Fight: Dominicans, Haitians, and the Struggle for Hispaniola by Michele Wucker (Hill & Wang, 2000).  The Dominican Revolt: A Case Study In American Policy by Theodore Draper (1971) is a classic.

Grenada, 1983.  Oh what a sad little episode this was and is.  Stephen Zunes has skillfully written about Grenada.  Amy Goodman did a segment on Democracy Now in 2004 with a former Grenadan official.  Here is another interesting retrospective from a panel at North Carolina A&T State.  And here is a list of some government sources, and a largely military bibliography.  A good piece of scholarship: Maurice Waters,The Invasion of Grenada, 1983 and the Collapse of Legal Norms,” Journal of Peace Research, Sept., 1986.  Good books on Grenada are not easy to find, but try Grenada: A History of Its People by Beverley A. Steele (MacMillan 2003).

Panama, 1989.  Try this short excerpt from Noam Chomsky for starters.  This review article of the Oscar-winning film “The Panama Deception,” has other references.

Worth reading is an interesting aftermath study—rarely done in American media—by Physicians for Human RightsAnalysis of the “drug war,” the putative reason for the invasion, is found on this right-wing site.  The U.S. Invasion of Panama: The Truth Behind Operational 'Just Cause' by the Independent Commission of Inquiry (South End, 1991), is a must read.

For more scholarly or narrow articles, see Charles Maechling, Jr., “Washington's Illegal Invasion, Foreign Policy, No. 79 (Summer, 1990).  Steve C. Ropp,Explaining the Long-Term Maintenance of a Military Regime: Panama before the U.S. Invasion,World Politics (Jan., 1992).  Eytan Gilboa, “The Panama Invasion Revisited: Lessons for the Use of Force in the Post Cold War Era,Political Science Quarterly (Winter, 1995-1996).  Try the country study for historical basics.

Books:  Panama: The Whole Story, by Kevin Buckley (Simon & Schuster, 1991) and  Emperors in the Jungle: The Hidden History of the U.S. in Panama by John Lindsay-Poland (Duke, 2003), will help.

Iraq 1991.  I have many references elsewhere for Iraq, but for Desert Storm (don’t you just love the titles of these operations—Just Cause, Urgent Fury, Enduring Freedom…..), see the outstanding journalist Dilip Hiro’s works, particularly, Iraq: In the Eye of the Storm, and The Great War for Civilisation: The Conquest of the Middle East by Robert Fisk, which is a broad and provocative history by a British journalist that takes in more than the brief 1991 conflict.

The National Security Archive has much about ODS.  The PBS “Frontline” program is worth seeing.  An assessment of the medical consequences is here, and reviews of the sanctions, a little-told story, are found here and here.

Somalia, 1992-93.  I wrote this chapter before the May-June 2006 triumph of the Islamic extremists, who overcame U.S.-backed warlords to seize control of Somalia.  Another stripe for the GWOT.  For background, see the International Crisis Group and ReliefWeb,  both of which are excellent resources for current crises, the latter having on-site reports from humanitarian organizations, but often with some background history as well. 

For the Bush the Elder intervention and the Clinton spinelessness, see this from International Security; the ever-ready Professor Zunes; this article coauthored by a U.S. official in Mogadishu during the operation (Restore Hope!); David Laitin’s account and analysis; and this from MERIP.  And here is a good list of other articles, with links.

Books: For a standard treatment of the intervention, see Walter Clarke and Jeffrey Herbst, editors, Learning from Somalia: The Lessons of Armed Humanitarian Intervention (Westview, 1997). 

And how about this for a change: Somalia - The Untold Story: The War Through the Eyes of Somali Women edited by by Judith Gardner and Judy El Bushra and published by Pluto Press in 2004.  Imagine, asking the victims what they think… won’t find this in Foreign Affairs or “Hannity and Colmes.”


Chapters 1-10
Chapters 11-19

Chapters 36-50 
Chapters 51-60
Chapters 71-100